Credit card issuers levied 8 percent fewer penalty fees in 2012, industry consultant R.K. Hammer estimates. The fees --including for late payments, insufficient funds, and exceeding credit limits -- have fallen since 2009, when Congress passed the CARD Act, which restricted the ability of card companies to impose some of those charges. That year, penalty fees yielded about $23.9 billion. The figure shrank to $19.4 billion in 2011 and to $17.8 billion last year, according to the data. Hammer predicts that card companies will adopt new fees in a bid to recoup the lost revenue; and it says some issuers already have created new fees -- including for inactive accounts, replacement cards, paper statements, and customer service calls.